# Serial Number Shape Collage Prol ~REPACK~

Take the above activity one step further and make a self correcting puzzle by using the one colour for each shape, writing the name of the shape on each popstick and including the number of sides/corners. This makes a great busy bag.

## Serial Number Shape Collage Prol

Magic squares have a long history, dating back to at least 190 BCE in China. At various times they have acquired occult or mythical significance, and have appeared as symbols in works of art. In modern times they have been generalized a number of ways, including using extra or different constraints, multiplying instead of adding cells, using alternate shapes or more than two dimensions, and replacing numbers with shapes and addition with geometric operations.

The order four normal magic square Albrecht DÃ¼rer immortalized in his 1514 engraving Melencolia I, referred to above, is believed to be the first seen in European art. The square associated with Jupiter appears as a talisman used to drive away melancholy. It is very similar to Yang Hui's square, which was created in China about 250 years before DÃ¼rer's time. As with every order 4 normal magic square, the magic sum is 34. But in the Durer square this sum is also found in each of the quadrants, in the center four squares, and in the corner squares (of the 44 as well as the four contained 33 grids). This sum can also be found in the four outer numbers clockwise from the corners (3+8+14+9) and likewise the four counter-clockwise (the locations of four queens in the two solutions of the 4 queens puzzle[50]), the two sets of four symmetrical numbers (2+8+9+15 and 3+5+12+14), the sum of the middle two entries of the two outer columns and rows (5+9+8+12 and 3+2+15+14), and in four kite or cross shaped quartets (3+5+11+15, 2+10+8+14, 3+9+7+15, and 2+6+12+14). The two numbers in the middle of the bottom row give the date of the engraving: 1514. The numbers 1 and 4 at either side of the date correspond respectively to the letters "A" and "D," which are the initials of the artist.

In the example shown the shapes appearing are two dimensional. It was Sallows' discovery that all magic squares are geometric, the numbers that appear in numerical magic squares can be interpreted as a shorthand notation which indicates the lengths of straight line segments that are the geometric 'shapes' occurring in the square. That is, numerical magic squares are that special case of a geometric magic square using one dimensional shapes.[82]

Other two dimensional shapes than squares can be considered. The general case is to consider a design with N parts to be magic if the N parts are labeled with the numbers 1 through N and a number of identical sub-designs give the same sum. Examples include magic circles, magic rectangles, magic triangles[84] magic stars, magic hexagons, magic diamonds. Going up in dimension results in magic spheres, magic cylinders, magic cubes, magic parallelepiped, magic solids, and other magic hypercubes.

Possible magic shapes are constrained by the number of equal-sized, equal-sum subsets of the chosen set of labels. For example, if one proposes to form a magic shape labeling the parts with 1, 2, 3, 4, the sub-designs will have to be labeled with 1,4 and 2,3.[84]

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