It Happened That Night By Akash Verma Pdf Free 46l |TOP|
Headache is a common symptom of tuberculous meningitis and is a component of the meningitis triad (fever, headache, and meningeal sign). Headache severity is influenced by many factors in tubercular meningitis like fever, seizure, meningeal sign, increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, basal exudates, meningeal enhancement, and vasculitic changes. Some of these inflammatory changes in the brain parenchyma, as well as in the meninges, result in permanent fibrotic changes and these changes could be the generator of headache during the disease process as well as even after resolution of infection (post meningitic headache). In our study, meningeal enhancement, basal exudates, and hydrocephalus were significantly associated with severity of headache. Out of 51 patients with intolerable and severe headache, only 7 (19.4%) became headache free at the end of 6 months. These findings indicate a severe inflammatory reaction and permanent changes in the brain that produces episodic headache in the intolerable and severe headache group. Therefore, in patients of suspected tubercular meningitis, severity of headache can be used as marker of severe inflammatory changes in the brain if advanced neuroimaging techniques are not available. The mild and moderate headache group was associated with good outcome and most of the patients became headache free during 6-month follow up. One important limitation of our study was patients with TBM who presented to us with altered sensorium were excluded as they could not provide a proper account of their headache. This lead to the exclusion of 22 patients.
It Happened That Night By Akash Verma Pdf Free 46l
Swimming speeds and flagellar rotation rates of individual free-swimming Vibrio alginolyticus cells were measured simultaneously by laser dark-field microscopy at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. A roughly linear relation between swimming speed and flagellar rotation rate was observed. The ratio of swimming speed to flagellar rotation rate was 0.113 microns, which indicated that a cell progressed by 7% of pitch of flagellar helix during one flagellar rotation. At each temperature, however, swimming speed had a tendency to saturate at high flagellar rotation rate. That is, the cell with a faster-rotating flagellum did not always swim faster. To analyze the bacterial motion, we proposed a model in which the torque characteristics of the flagellar motor were considered. The model could be analytically solved, and it qualitatively explained the experimental results. The discrepancy between the experimental and the calculated ratios of swimming speed to flagellar rotation rate was about 20%. The apparent saturation in swimming speed was considered to be caused by shorter flagella that rotated faster but produced less propelling force. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:8580359
This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory for fluent continua in which the conservation and balance laws are derived by incorporating both internal rotation rates arising from the velocity gradient tensor and the rotation rates of the Cosserats. Specifically, in this non-classical continuum theory we have (1) the usual velocities (\\bar b \\varvecv ), (2) the three internal rotation rates (_i^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ ) about the axes of a fixed triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the velocity gradient tensor (\\bar b \\varvecL ) that are completely defined by the antisymmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, and (3) three additional rotation rates (_e^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ ) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three unknown degrees of freedom, referred to as Cosserat rotation rates. This gives rise to \\bar b \\varvecv and _e^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotation rates _i^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ , often neglected in classical fluid mechanics, exist in all deforming fluent continua as these are due to velocity gradient tensor. When the internal rotation rates _i^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ are resisted by deforming fluent continua, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with _i^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be considered in the conservation and balance laws. The Cosserat rotation rations _e^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ also result in conjugate moment tensor that together with _e^t\\bar b \\varvecΘ may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of this paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws for fluent continua that incorporate the aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermofluids using the conditions resulting from the entropy
In order to investigate a possible variety of atmospheric states realized on a synchronously rotating aquaplanet, an experiment studying the impact of planetary rotation rate is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrological and radiative processes. The entire planetary surface is covered with a swamp ocean. The value of planetary rotation rate is varied from zero to the Earth's, while other parameters such as planetary radius, mean molecular weight and total mass of atmospheric dry components, and solar constant are set to the present Earth's values. The integration results show that the atmosphere reaches statistically equilibrium states for all runs; none of the calculated cases exemplifies the runaway greenhouse state. The circulation patterns obtained are classified into four types: Type-I characterized by the dominance of a day-night thermally direct circulation, Type-II characterized by a zonal wave number one resonant Rossby wave over a meridionally broad westerly jet on the equator, Type-III characterized by a long time scale north-south asymmetric variation, and Type-IV characterized by a pair of mid-latitude westerly jets. With the increase of planetary rotation rate, the circulation evolves from Type-I to Type-II and then to Type-III gradually and smoothly, whereas the change from Type-III to Type-IV is abrupt and discontinuous. Over a finite range of planetary rotation rate, both Types-III and -IV emerge as statistically steady states, constituting multiple equilibria. In spite of the substantial changes in circulation, the net energy transport from the day side to the night side remains almost insensitive to planetary rotation rate, although the partition into dry static energy and latent heat energy transports changes. The reason for this notable insensitivity is that the outgoing longwave radiation over the broad area of the day side is constrained by the radiation limit of a moist atmosphere, so that the
A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into constant rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque at a constant rotation to a micromechanism. The output gear can have gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication.
Iapetus has preserved evidence that constrains the modeling of its geophysical history from the time of its accretion until now. The evidence is (a) its present 79.33-day rotation or spin rate, (b) its shape that corresponds to the equilibrium figure for a hydrostatic body rotating with a period of approximately 16 h, and (c) its high, equatorial ridge, which is unique in the Solar System. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the coupling between Iapetus' thermal and orbital evolution for a wide range of conditions including the spatial distributions with time of composition, porosity, short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRI), and temperature. The thermal model uses conductive heat transfer with temperature-dependent conductivity. Only models with a thick lithosphere and an interior viscosity in the range of about the water ice melting point can explain the observed shape. Short-lived radioactive isotopes provide the heat needed to decrease porosity in Iapetus? early history. This increases thermal conductivity and allows the development of the strong lithosphere that is required to preserve the 16-h rotational shape and the high vertical relief of the topography. Long-lived radioactive isotopes and SLRI raise internal temperatures high enough that significant tidal dissipation can start, and despin Iapetus to synchronous rotation. This occurred several hundred million years after Iapetus formed. The models also constrain the time when Iapetus formed because the successful models are critically dependent upon having just the right amount of heat added by SLRI decay in this early period. The amount of heat available from short-lived radioactivity is not a free parameter but is fixed by the time when Iapetus accreted, by the canonical concentration of Al-26, and, to a lesser extent, by the concentration of Fe-60. The needed amount of heat is available only if Iapetus accreted between 2.5 and 5.0Myr after the formation of the calcium aluminum
To present our experience regarding the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in anatomically abnormal kidneys. We performed US-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 15 patients with anatomically abnormal kidneys and renal calculi. Of the 15 patients, 5 had horseshoe kidneys, 5 had rotation anomalies, 2 had kyphoscoliosis, and 3 had scoliosis. The stone size, number of access tracts, operative time, hospitalization duration, rate of stone clearance, and complication rate were recorded. Percutaneous access was achieved with US guidance in the operating room by the urologist. Successful renal access was obtained by the surgeon using US guidance in all patients, and a single access was obtained in all cases. Of the 15 patients, 8 were females, and 7 were males; 8 patients had solitary stones, and 7 had multiple calculi. The renal calculi were on the right in 7 patients and on the left in 8. Three patients had previously undergone unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 13 patients. The mean operative time was 54.2 minutes. No patient required a blood transfusion because of bleeding. Urinary tract infections occurred in 2 patients, who were treated with antibiotics. A double-J catheter was not inserted in any patient; however, a ureteral catheter was used in 3 patients for 1 day. None of the patients had any major complications during the postoperative period. The stone-free rate was 87%, and 2 patients had clinically insignificant residual fragments. Our results have demonstrated that US-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be performed feasibly, safely, and effectively in anatomically abnormal kidneys. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 350c69d7ab